Jumat, Desember 11, 2009

Grammar Lesson Part 2

Have you ever...?

Ever means from the time you were born until now. Except for rare exceptions, it can only be used in questions and to answers with a no.

It is used with have or had + a past participle.


Have you ever eaten a frog?
Has she ever gone to Australia?

When you answer the question, a yes answer will use have/has + past participle.

Have you ever seen a whale?
Yes, I have seen a whale. or Yes, I have.

If you answer the question with a no, you will need to use

haven't /hasn't + ever + past participle or
have /has + never + past participle

(both of these have the same meaning)


Have you ever seen a whale?

No, I haven't ever seen a whale. or
No, I've never seen a whale. or
No, I haven't.

Using have to, supposed to, and ought to

Have to is the same as must. It implies that you don't have a choice.

John has to go to work everyday.
The students have to study tonight.

To be supposed to means an obligation. It is something that you should do, or something that another person expects you to do. Don't forget to use the verb be in front of supposed to.

Sally is supposed to meet her friend tonight.
All of the employees are supposed to attend today's meeting.

Ought to means a suggestion. You should do something but you don't have to do it.

We ought to clean the house tonight.
Phillip ought to help you with your homework.

(Notice that all of these words are modals. They are followed by a verb.)

You may feel confused about the slight differences between these words. Just think about what the speaker is implying.

I have to do my homework. (If I don't, will be in trouble.)
I am supposed to do my homework. (If I don't, my teacher will notice that I didn't do it.)

I ought to do my homework. (I don't have to if I don't want to, but I feel I should do it because I want to do well in the class.)

Reported Speech (Part 1)

Reported Speech is used to tell or report what someone has said.

For example, look at this sentence: Harry said, "I love Susan." If we ask someone else to tell us what Harry said, the person would say (or report) what the first person said like this.

He said he loved Susan.
Or Harry said he loved Susan.

But notice how the verb tense changed. Love became loved. Here are some rules...

The present tense verb is change to the past tense in reported speech.

Sally said, "I like pizza."

What did she say?
She said (that*) she liked pizza.

The past tense is change to the past perfect in reported speech.
Joe said, "I went to New York City."

What did he say?
He said (that) he had gone to New York City.

The present continuous is changed to the past continuous.

Michael said, "I am taking an English class."

What did he say?
He said (that) he was taking an English class.

*You can use the work that in reported speech if you want. It doesn't matter if you do or not.

Reported Speech (Part 2)

The present perfect verb is change to the past perfect tense in reported speech.

Michelle said, " I have been to California."

What did she say?
She said (that*) she had been to California.

The past perfect tense doesn't change.

John said, " I had talked to my neighbor."

What did he say?
John said (that) he had talked to his neighbor.

The future tense verb is change to the conditional in reported speech.

Staci said, "I will buy a new house."

What did she say?
She said (that) she would buy a new house.

*You can use the word that in reported speech if you want. It doesn't matter if you do or not.

Reflexive Pronouns

Reflexive pronouns are these words:

myself, yourself, herself, himself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, and themselves*

Reflexive pronouns are used when the subject and the object in a sentence are the same person.

For example:

I hit myself with a hammer.

John hit himself with a hammer.

These sentences are not correct:

X I hit me with a hammer.

X John hit him with a hammer. (If John hit John.)

But remember, when the subject and object are different people, use the regular object pronouns (me, you, he, she, it, us, and them**.)

I hit her (Susan) with a hammer.

John hit him (Jack) with a hammer

Using because to connect sentences

Look at this sentence:

Alice went shopping.


She needed to buy bread.

Now let's use because to put the two sentences together.

Alice went shopping because she needed to buy bread.

We can also say it another way:

Because she needed to buy bread, Alice went shopping.

Notice that when you use because at the beginning of the sentence, you must use a comma (,) after the first part (which is called the adverb clause.)

One more:

I like butterflies. Why? They are pretty.

I like butterflies because they are pretty.
Because they are pretty, I like butterflies.

Using Parallel Verbs

When speaking and writing in English, we sometimes use more than one verb to describe what is happening. For example:

Thomas speaks and studies English.

The important thing to remember is- when the subject does two or more things, the verbs use the same tense. More examples:

Thomas spoke and studied English.

Thomas will speak and (will) study English.

Thomas can speak and (can) study English.

Thomas is speaking and (is) studying English.

If the verb has a helping verb (like will, can, is, are, etc.) you must use it before the first verb but you may or may not use it after. It is your choice. Usually it is not used.

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